## What could be the reason why my model does not give accurate results as I planned?

Hi everyone. First of all, thank you for your time. This will be my first question on the matlab platform. Please excuse me if I have any mistakes. If you understand the problem, you can already find the necessary files in the zip folder. If you want to view images in pgm format, you can use the GIMP application.

I am planning to design a MLP image processing model without using any toolbox.

I plan to train my model by reading one by one 32×30 scale images in the CMU face images dataset I obtained from the internet and then continue with testing process.

(I use imread function that is provided by MATLAB)

INPUT is a cell vector which contains image matrixes in each element. So each element represents an image actually. While processing samples one by one I get its images as column vector.

Here is the code for file operations and image reading:

clc;clear;close;

%*****************Reading Images**************

myFolder = ”; %% Images folder path

if ~isfolder(myFolder) %% Checking if the folder doesn’t exist

errorMessage = sprintf(‘Error: The following folder does not exist:n%snPlease specify a new folder.’, myFolder);

uiwait(warndlg(errorMessage));

myFolder = uigetdir(); % Ask for a new one.

if myFolder == 0

% User clicked Cancel

return;

end

end

filePattern = fullfile(myFolder, ‘*.pgm’);

theFiles = dir(filePattern);

% Define the number of image files in the folder

numImages = length(theFiles);

% Initialize a cell array to store the images

INPUT = cell(numImages, 1);

for k = 1 : length(theFiles)

baseFileName = theFiles(k).name;

fullFileName = fullfile(theFiles(k).folder, baseFileName);

INPUT{k} = imread(fullFileName);

imshow(INPUT{k}); % Display image.

drawnow; % Force display to update immediately.

end

%***********************************************

It is a user-interactive model, and firstly I get the number of:

Hidden layers:

Neurons in each hidden layer: (neuron numbers will be the same for each hidden layer)

Max iteration:

of my model from user.

Other definitions are shown in below code. I define NumberOfInput as 960 which comes from 32×30 because Weight matrix’s size between input layer and first hidden layer needed to adjusted in that way.

Weight matrix values are assigned randomly.

My model should return 0 if person doesn’t wear sunglasses and 1 if person wears with high accuracy. So it is scaler and there will be 1 output obviously.

I studied about MLP models and I found that finding perfect variables is a hard subject in machine learning and it depends on application and tests. So I defined my ETA with various values: 0.01,0.02,0.05,0.2,0.5….

In this type of model input to neurons are defined as netH and output of these neurons are defined as H except last connections. In there they become netO and O.

Also sigma size is defined in order to use after forward state (backward state starts).

My model is an example of Supervised Learning and it needs some outputs for training images like mentioned DESIRED as below. Images inside Model_Training are located as open–>sunglasses–>open–>sunglasses… so I decided to define desired with this order as shown below.

Here is the code:

%*******************VARİABLES*******************

NumberOfPatterns=numImages;

NumberOfInput=960;

NumberOfOutput=1;

LearningRate_ETA=0.5;

while true

NofLayers=input("Layer number: "); % Hidden layer number

Nofneurons=input("Neuron number: "); % Neuron number of each hidden layer

Max_iteration=input("Max iteration number: "); % Max iteration

if(Nofneurons<=0 || NofLayers<=0 || Max_iteration<=0)

fprintf("These values can’t be accepted !");

fprintf("nPlease enter again");

else

break;

end

end

W = cell(NofLayers+1,1);

H=cell(NofLayers,1);

sigma=cell(NofLayers+1,1);

%***********************************************

% Random values are assigned to Weights

for i=1:NofLayers+1

if i==1

W{i}=rand(NumberOfInput,Nofneurons);

elseif i==NofLayers+1

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,NumberOfOutput);

else

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,Nofneurons);

end

end

%***********************************************

DESIRED=zeros(NumberOfPatterns,1);

%****************Adjusting Desired Results******

%Training images are located in order. Ex:

%A_open.pgn

%A_sunglasses.pgn

for i=1:NumberOfPatterns

if(mod(i,2)==1)

DESIRED(i)=0;

else

DESIRED(i)=1;

end

end

%************************************************

Right now processing starts. I need to mention that I use sigmoid function as activation function.

In order not to prolong the topic further I will share directly code in here.

%***********************Processing***************

for a=1:Max_iteration

totalerr=0;

for i = 1:NumberOfPatterns

ImageVector = reshape(INPUT{i}, [], 1);

X = double(ImageVector);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%%%

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

O=sigmoid(netO);

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1}; %

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%

end

end

err=DESIRED(i)-O;

for j=1:NumberOfOutput

sigma{NofLayers+1}=err*O(j)*(1-O(j)); %Last sigma value

end

for l=1:NofLayers

for k=1:Nofneurons

[rowsigma colsigma]=size(sigma{NofLayers-l+2});

[rowW colsW]=size(W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:));

%These conditions satisfies proper matrix multiplciation

if(colsigma==rowW)

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:) *H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

else

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:)’*H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

end

end

end

for z=1:NofLayers+1

%Weights are updated at this part

if((NofLayers+2-z)==1)

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*X*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

else

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*H{NofLayers+1-z}*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

end

end

totalerr=totalerr+0.5*err^2;

end

cost(a)=totalerr;

end

plot(cost);

%%*****************Test Case********************

%Getting test image address from user

fileFilter = ‘*.pgm’;

[filename, pathname] = uigetfile(fileFilter, ‘Select a PGM file’, ”);

if isequal(filename, 0)

disp(‘Program has stopped’);

else

fullFilePath = fullfile(pathname, filename);

end

%**************Test Sample Operations*******

testSample=imread(fullFilePath); %

testSample=reshape(testSample,[],1);

X=double(testSample);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

Out=round(sigmoid(netO));

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

end

end

fprintf(‘Result is: %dn’, Out);

%**********************Helper Functions*********

%Sigmoid Activation Function

function y = sigmoid(x)

y = 1 ./ (1 + exp(-x));

end

You can run and test it with the files that provided in zip file. In this kind of model as I know I need to try it with high number of layer and neuron. I tried with 4-20 5-30 5-35 … Generally it returns 1 and this is the problem that I am struggling with.

If you can give any comment, feedback I would appreciate it. Again thank you for giving a time.Hi everyone. First of all, thank you for your time. This will be my first question on the matlab platform. Please excuse me if I have any mistakes. If you understand the problem, you can already find the necessary files in the zip folder. If you want to view images in pgm format, you can use the GIMP application.

I am planning to design a MLP image processing model without using any toolbox.

I plan to train my model by reading one by one 32×30 scale images in the CMU face images dataset I obtained from the internet and then continue with testing process.

(I use imread function that is provided by MATLAB)

INPUT is a cell vector which contains image matrixes in each element. So each element represents an image actually. While processing samples one by one I get its images as column vector.

Here is the code for file operations and image reading:

clc;clear;close;

%*****************Reading Images**************

myFolder = ”; %% Images folder path

if ~isfolder(myFolder) %% Checking if the folder doesn’t exist

errorMessage = sprintf(‘Error: The following folder does not exist:n%snPlease specify a new folder.’, myFolder);

uiwait(warndlg(errorMessage));

myFolder = uigetdir(); % Ask for a new one.

if myFolder == 0

% User clicked Cancel

return;

end

end

filePattern = fullfile(myFolder, ‘*.pgm’);

theFiles = dir(filePattern);

% Define the number of image files in the folder

numImages = length(theFiles);

% Initialize a cell array to store the images

INPUT = cell(numImages, 1);

for k = 1 : length(theFiles)

baseFileName = theFiles(k).name;

fullFileName = fullfile(theFiles(k).folder, baseFileName);

INPUT{k} = imread(fullFileName);

imshow(INPUT{k}); % Display image.

drawnow; % Force display to update immediately.

end

%***********************************************

It is a user-interactive model, and firstly I get the number of:

Hidden layers:

Neurons in each hidden layer: (neuron numbers will be the same for each hidden layer)

Max iteration:

of my model from user.

Other definitions are shown in below code. I define NumberOfInput as 960 which comes from 32×30 because Weight matrix’s size between input layer and first hidden layer needed to adjusted in that way.

Weight matrix values are assigned randomly.

My model should return 0 if person doesn’t wear sunglasses and 1 if person wears with high accuracy. So it is scaler and there will be 1 output obviously.

I studied about MLP models and I found that finding perfect variables is a hard subject in machine learning and it depends on application and tests. So I defined my ETA with various values: 0.01,0.02,0.05,0.2,0.5….

In this type of model input to neurons are defined as netH and output of these neurons are defined as H except last connections. In there they become netO and O.

Also sigma size is defined in order to use after forward state (backward state starts).

My model is an example of Supervised Learning and it needs some outputs for training images like mentioned DESIRED as below. Images inside Model_Training are located as open–>sunglasses–>open–>sunglasses… so I decided to define desired with this order as shown below.

Here is the code:

%*******************VARİABLES*******************

NumberOfPatterns=numImages;

NumberOfInput=960;

NumberOfOutput=1;

LearningRate_ETA=0.5;

while true

NofLayers=input("Layer number: "); % Hidden layer number

Nofneurons=input("Neuron number: "); % Neuron number of each hidden layer

Max_iteration=input("Max iteration number: "); % Max iteration

if(Nofneurons<=0 || NofLayers<=0 || Max_iteration<=0)

fprintf("These values can’t be accepted !");

fprintf("nPlease enter again");

else

break;

end

end

W = cell(NofLayers+1,1);

H=cell(NofLayers,1);

sigma=cell(NofLayers+1,1);

%***********************************************

% Random values are assigned to Weights

for i=1:NofLayers+1

if i==1

W{i}=rand(NumberOfInput,Nofneurons);

elseif i==NofLayers+1

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,NumberOfOutput);

else

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,Nofneurons);

end

end

%***********************************************

DESIRED=zeros(NumberOfPatterns,1);

%****************Adjusting Desired Results******

%Training images are located in order. Ex:

%A_open.pgn

%A_sunglasses.pgn

for i=1:NumberOfPatterns

if(mod(i,2)==1)

DESIRED(i)=0;

else

DESIRED(i)=1;

end

end

%************************************************

Right now processing starts. I need to mention that I use sigmoid function as activation function.

In order not to prolong the topic further I will share directly code in here.

%***********************Processing***************

for a=1:Max_iteration

totalerr=0;

for i = 1:NumberOfPatterns

ImageVector = reshape(INPUT{i}, [], 1);

X = double(ImageVector);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%%%

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

O=sigmoid(netO);

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1}; %

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%

end

end

err=DESIRED(i)-O;

for j=1:NumberOfOutput

sigma{NofLayers+1}=err*O(j)*(1-O(j)); %Last sigma value

end

for l=1:NofLayers

for k=1:Nofneurons

[rowsigma colsigma]=size(sigma{NofLayers-l+2});

[rowW colsW]=size(W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:));

%These conditions satisfies proper matrix multiplciation

if(colsigma==rowW)

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:) *H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

else

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:)’*H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

end

end

end

for z=1:NofLayers+1

%Weights are updated at this part

if((NofLayers+2-z)==1)

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*X*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

else

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*H{NofLayers+1-z}*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

end

end

totalerr=totalerr+0.5*err^2;

end

cost(a)=totalerr;

end

plot(cost);

%%*****************Test Case********************

%Getting test image address from user

fileFilter = ‘*.pgm’;

[filename, pathname] = uigetfile(fileFilter, ‘Select a PGM file’, ”);

if isequal(filename, 0)

disp(‘Program has stopped’);

else

fullFilePath = fullfile(pathname, filename);

end

%**************Test Sample Operations*******

testSample=imread(fullFilePath); %

testSample=reshape(testSample,[],1);

X=double(testSample);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

Out=round(sigmoid(netO));

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

end

end

fprintf(‘Result is: %dn’, Out);

%**********************Helper Functions*********

%Sigmoid Activation Function

function y = sigmoid(x)

y = 1 ./ (1 + exp(-x));

end

You can run and test it with the files that provided in zip file. In this kind of model as I know I need to try it with high number of layer and neuron. I tried with 4-20 5-30 5-35 … Generally it returns 1 and this is the problem that I am struggling with.

If you can give any comment, feedback I would appreciate it. Again thank you for giving a time. Hi everyone. First of all, thank you for your time. This will be my first question on the matlab platform. Please excuse me if I have any mistakes. If you understand the problem, you can already find the necessary files in the zip folder. If you want to view images in pgm format, you can use the GIMP application.

I am planning to design a MLP image processing model without using any toolbox.

I plan to train my model by reading one by one 32×30 scale images in the CMU face images dataset I obtained from the internet and then continue with testing process.

(I use imread function that is provided by MATLAB)

INPUT is a cell vector which contains image matrixes in each element. So each element represents an image actually. While processing samples one by one I get its images as column vector.

Here is the code for file operations and image reading:

clc;clear;close;

%*****************Reading Images**************

myFolder = ”; %% Images folder path

if ~isfolder(myFolder) %% Checking if the folder doesn’t exist

errorMessage = sprintf(‘Error: The following folder does not exist:n%snPlease specify a new folder.’, myFolder);

uiwait(warndlg(errorMessage));

myFolder = uigetdir(); % Ask for a new one.

if myFolder == 0

% User clicked Cancel

return;

end

end

filePattern = fullfile(myFolder, ‘*.pgm’);

theFiles = dir(filePattern);

% Define the number of image files in the folder

numImages = length(theFiles);

% Initialize a cell array to store the images

INPUT = cell(numImages, 1);

for k = 1 : length(theFiles)

baseFileName = theFiles(k).name;

fullFileName = fullfile(theFiles(k).folder, baseFileName);

INPUT{k} = imread(fullFileName);

imshow(INPUT{k}); % Display image.

drawnow; % Force display to update immediately.

end

%***********************************************

It is a user-interactive model, and firstly I get the number of:

Hidden layers:

Neurons in each hidden layer: (neuron numbers will be the same for each hidden layer)

Max iteration:

of my model from user.

Other definitions are shown in below code. I define NumberOfInput as 960 which comes from 32×30 because Weight matrix’s size between input layer and first hidden layer needed to adjusted in that way.

Weight matrix values are assigned randomly.

My model should return 0 if person doesn’t wear sunglasses and 1 if person wears with high accuracy. So it is scaler and there will be 1 output obviously.

I studied about MLP models and I found that finding perfect variables is a hard subject in machine learning and it depends on application and tests. So I defined my ETA with various values: 0.01,0.02,0.05,0.2,0.5….

In this type of model input to neurons are defined as netH and output of these neurons are defined as H except last connections. In there they become netO and O.

Also sigma size is defined in order to use after forward state (backward state starts).

My model is an example of Supervised Learning and it needs some outputs for training images like mentioned DESIRED as below. Images inside Model_Training are located as open–>sunglasses–>open–>sunglasses… so I decided to define desired with this order as shown below.

Here is the code:

%*******************VARİABLES*******************

NumberOfPatterns=numImages;

NumberOfInput=960;

NumberOfOutput=1;

LearningRate_ETA=0.5;

while true

NofLayers=input("Layer number: "); % Hidden layer number

Nofneurons=input("Neuron number: "); % Neuron number of each hidden layer

Max_iteration=input("Max iteration number: "); % Max iteration

if(Nofneurons<=0 || NofLayers<=0 || Max_iteration<=0)

fprintf("These values can’t be accepted !");

fprintf("nPlease enter again");

else

break;

end

end

W = cell(NofLayers+1,1);

H=cell(NofLayers,1);

sigma=cell(NofLayers+1,1);

%***********************************************

% Random values are assigned to Weights

for i=1:NofLayers+1

if i==1

W{i}=rand(NumberOfInput,Nofneurons);

elseif i==NofLayers+1

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,NumberOfOutput);

else

W{i}=rand(Nofneurons,Nofneurons);

end

end

%***********************************************

DESIRED=zeros(NumberOfPatterns,1);

%****************Adjusting Desired Results******

%Training images are located in order. Ex:

%A_open.pgn

%A_sunglasses.pgn

for i=1:NumberOfPatterns

if(mod(i,2)==1)

DESIRED(i)=0;

else

DESIRED(i)=1;

end

end

%************************************************

Right now processing starts. I need to mention that I use sigmoid function as activation function.

In order not to prolong the topic further I will share directly code in here.

%***********************Processing***************

for a=1:Max_iteration

totalerr=0;

for i = 1:NumberOfPatterns

ImageVector = reshape(INPUT{i}, [], 1);

X = double(ImageVector);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%%%

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

O=sigmoid(netO);

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1}; %

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);%

end

end

err=DESIRED(i)-O;

for j=1:NumberOfOutput

sigma{NofLayers+1}=err*O(j)*(1-O(j)); %Last sigma value

end

for l=1:NofLayers

for k=1:Nofneurons

[rowsigma colsigma]=size(sigma{NofLayers-l+2});

[rowW colsW]=size(W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:));

%These conditions satisfies proper matrix multiplciation

if(colsigma==rowW)

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:) *H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

else

sigma{NofLayers-l+1}=sigma{NofLayers-l+2}*W{NofLayers-l+2}(k,:)’*H{NofLayers+1-l}(k)*(1-H{NofLayers+1-l}(k));

end

end

end

for z=1:NofLayers+1

%Weights are updated at this part

if((NofLayers+2-z)==1)

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*X*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

else

W{NofLayers+2-z}=W{NofLayers+2-z}+LearningRate_ETA*H{NofLayers+1-z}*sigma{NofLayers+2-z};

end

end

totalerr=totalerr+0.5*err^2;

end

cost(a)=totalerr;

end

plot(cost);

%%*****************Test Case********************

%Getting test image address from user

fileFilter = ‘*.pgm’;

[filename, pathname] = uigetfile(fileFilter, ‘Select a PGM file’, ”);

if isequal(filename, 0)

disp(‘Program has stopped’);

else

fullFilePath = fullfile(pathname, filename);

end

%**************Test Sample Operations*******

testSample=imread(fullFilePath); %

testSample=reshape(testSample,[],1);

X=double(testSample);

for lay=1:NofLayers+1

if(lay==1) %First connections

netH=W{lay}’*X;

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

elseif (lay==NofLayers+1) %Last connections

netO=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

Out=round(sigmoid(netO));

else % between connections layers

netH=W{lay}’*H{lay-1};

H{lay}=sigmoid(netH);

end

end

fprintf(‘Result is: %dn’, Out);

%**********************Helper Functions*********

%Sigmoid Activation Function

function y = sigmoid(x)

y = 1 ./ (1 + exp(-x));

end

You can run and test it with the files that provided in zip file. In this kind of model as I know I need to try it with high number of layer and neuron. I tried with 4-20 5-30 5-35 … Generally it returns 1 and this is the problem that I am struggling with.

If you can give any comment, feedback I would appreciate it. Again thank you for giving a time. mlp, image processing, deep learning MATLAB Answers — New Questions